Article 198 TFEU reads as follows: "The Member States agree to associate with the Union the non-European countries and territories which have special relations with Denmark, France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. These countries and territories (hereinafter called the "countries and territories") are listed in Annex II. (…)".
The association status of all overseas countries and territories (OCTs) is laid down in Council Decision 2013/755/EU on the association of the overseas countries and territories with the European Union.
Recital 1 of Council Decision 2014/137/EU on relations between the European Union on the one hand, and Greenland and the Kingdom of Denmark on the other reads as follows: "In accordance with the Treaty amending, with regard to Greenland, the Treaties establishing the European Communities ( 2 ) (‘the Greenland Treaty’), the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) no longer applies to Greenland. Rather, Greenland, being a part of a Member State, is associated to the Union as one of the overseas countries and territories (OCTs)."
On the basis of the above, Greenland is one of the OCTs listed in Annex II of the TFEU. It is not an independent country as it is part of Denmark but it is not subject to the EU Treaties. It benefits from the association status with the EU.
Concerning the participation to H2020, Annex A of the H2020 WP reads as follows:
"Legal entities established in the following countries and territories will be eligible to receive funding through Horizon 2020:
− The Member States of the European Union, including their overseas departments;
- The Overseas Countries and Territories (OCT) linked to the Member States *:
Anguilla, Aruba, Bermuda, Bonaire, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Curaçao, Falkland Islands, French Polynesia, Greenland, Montserrat, New Caledonia, Pitcairn Islands, Saba, Saint Barthélémy, Saint Helena, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Sint Eustatius, Sint Maarten, Turks and Caicos Islands, Wallis and Futuna..
* Entities from Overseas Countries and Territories (OCT) are eligible for funding under the same conditions as entities from the Member States to which the OCT in question is linked".
With regard to the application of the mobility rule (IF and ITN) a researcher having spent in Greenland more than 12 months in the previous three years is not eligible for a fellowship in Denmark as it is considered as the same country.
As regards ITN question, indeed OTC does not count towards the minimum conditions of three countries if there is a participant from the linked country (for instance if there is one participant from Greenland and one from Denmark they do not count as two countries towards the minimum requirement of three entities established in a different MS/AC).
For RISE, secondments between an academic organisation in Denmark and a non-academic organisation in Greenland are not possible (different sectors in the same country). For secondments in IF an organisation in Denmark and one in Greenland are considered to be established in the same country (the reasoning above applies) and this is therefore acceptable.